Indian fm Radio is the history of radio broadcast that started in India with the setting up of a private radio service in Chennai, in the year 1924. In that same year, British government gave license to the Indian Broadcasting Company, to launch Radio stations in Mumbai andKolkata. Later as the company became bankrupt, the government took possession of the transmitters and began its operations as the Indian State Broadcasting Corporation. In the year 1936, it was renamed All India Radio (AIR) and the Department of Communications managed it entirely. After independence, All India Radio was converted into a separate Department. All India Radio has five regional headquarters in New Delhi, for the North Zone; in Kolkata, for the East Zone; inGuwahati, for the North-East Zone, in Mumbai, for the West Zone; and in Chennai, for the South Zone.
In the year 1957, All India Radio was renamed Akashvani, which is controlled by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. During the period of independence only a mere 6 radio stations existed through out the country. But during the late 1990s, the network of All India Radio extended to almost 146 AM stations. Moreover the Integrated North-East Service focused on reaching to the population in northeast India. All India Radio offers programmes in English, Hindi and numerous regional and local languages. In the year 1967, Commercial Radio services started in India. The initiative was taken by Vividh Bharati and Commercial Service, from the headquarters in Mumbai. Vividh Bharati accumulated revenues from widespread sponsorships and advertisements. During the mid-1990s, broadcasting was carried on from 31 AM and FM stations.
By 1994, there were around 85 FM stations and 73 short wave stations that linked the whole nation. The broadcasting technology in India is basically indigenous and reaches far and wide to various listeners like farmers who require various updated information on agriculture. Between 1970 and 1994, the amount of radio receivers increased manifold, almost five times. From the initial 14 million, the number increased to a staggering 65 million. The broadcast services from foreign countries are provided by the External Services Division of All India Radio. Almost 70 hours of news, entertainment programmes were broadcasted in 1994 in various languages with the help of 32 shortwave transmitters.
After Independence, Indian radio was regarded as a vital medium of networking and communication, mainly because of the lack of any other mediums. All the major national affairs and social events were transmitted through radio. Indian radio played a significant role in social integration of the entire nation. All India Radio mainly focused on development of a national consciousness as well as over all National integration. Programming was organised and created keeping in mind the solitary purpose of national political integration. This supported in prevailing over the imperative crisis of political instability, which was created after the Independence. Thus political enhancement and progressive nation building efforts were aided by the transmission of planned broadcasts.
All India Radio also provided assistance in enhancing the economic condition of the country. Indian radio was particularly designed and programmed to provide support to the procedure of social improvement, which was a vital pre-requisite of economic enhancement. The leading development beliefs of the time analysed the problems and hindrances in development as the primary ones in the developing nations. The function of broadcasting paved a way for the surge of modern concepts. Later, with the modernisation of the country, television was introduced and broadcasting achieved new status. But by then, radio had become a veteran medium in India. Diverse programmes including entertainment and melodious songs were also transmitted nationwide. Akashvani or All India Radio still stands as one of the biggest radio networks around the globe
During the Freedom Struggle the flag went through many designs before settling on the tricolor that represents India today. Here’s a briefThe 8 stars-lotus in these flags represented the 8 provinces of British India. There are other variations of these flags. One such flag had all the stars, sun, star and crescent hand embroidered. However, the word “Vande Mataram” was misspelled.Associated with the names of Dr. Annie Besant and Lokmanya Tilak, this flag was hoisted at the Congress session in Calcutta during the "Home Rule Movement".
By 1917, the political struggle for India’s freedom had taken a definite turn. This flag was used by Dr. Annie Besant and Lokmanya Tilak during the “Home Rule” movement. The top left corner of the flag has the union jack. The flag itself consists of 9 strips, 5 red and 4 green. The crescent and the star is on the top right corner and 7 stars in the pattern of saptarishi are arranged on the flag. This flag symbolizes the aspirations of the freedom struggle at that time of a Dominion Status.First flag approved by GandhijiIn the year 1921, a young man from Andhra presented this flag to Gandhiji for approval. It was only after Gandhiji's suggestion that the white strip and the charkha were added.
The flag used in the Home rule movement was not very popular. The presence of Union Jack on the flag depicted the political compromise that was very unpopular with the masses. 1921, brought the young Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi to the fore. During the All India Congress Committee Meeting at Bezwada (Vijayawada) in Andhra Pradesh, a young man designed this flag and presented it to Gandhiji. The flag originally had only 2 colors, green and red that symbolized the Muslim and the Hindu communities. At Gandhiji’s request, the third white color was added for the other communities and the charkha to symbolize progress. This flag was never approved by the Congress Committee however, because of Gandhiji’s approval; it was used at all Congress functions.This flag was suggested during the All India Congress Committee session in 1931. However, the Committee's suggestion was not approved.
In 1931 at the All India Congress Committee meeting in Karachi, the communal tensions were already flaring. There was significant controversy over the importance of flag colors. A 7 member flag committee was set up to come up with a flag. They presented the flag with just one color; saffron with a reddish brown charkha. This flag was not approved by the Congress Committee.On August 6, 1931, The Indian National Congress formally adopted this flag, which was first hoisted on August 31.
A resolution was passed and the committee formally adopted the tricolor flag on August 6 1921. It was first hoisted on August 31, 1931. The date was declared as Flag Day. The proportions for the flag were set at 2:3.Our National Flag, which was born on July 22, 1947, with Nehruji's words, "Now I present to you not only the Resolution but the Flag itself". This flag was first hoisted at the Council House on August 15, 1947.
On august 15 1947, India adopted the horizontal tricolor of orange, white and green with blue Ashok Chakra. The tricolor was adopted since 1921 and the Ashok Chakra was added for historical depth and to separate the National flag from the Indian National Congress flag. The spoke Ashok Chakra or the Wheel of Law of 3rd century BC Mauryan Emperor Ashok.
India's flag is a tricolor standard with bands of saffron, white and dark green. The saffron represents courage, sacrifice, patriotism, and renunciation. It is also the color of the Hindu people. The green stands for faith, fertility and the land, it is the color of Islam religion. The white is in the center, symbolizing the hope for unity and peace. In the center of the white band is a blue wheel with 24 spokes. This is the Ashoka Chakra (or "Wheel of Law"). The chakra represents the continuing progress of the nation and the importance of justice in life. It also appears on the Sarnath Lion, Capital of Ashoka.
The largest flag in India (6.3 × 4.2 m) is flown by the government of Maharashtra atop the Mantralya building, the state administrative headquartersLt Shri Pingali Venkayya, the man who designed the Tiranga. of the Tiranga (Tricolor).The flag that was first hoisted on August 7, 1906, at the Parsee Bagan Square in CalcuttaThis flag was first hoisted on August 7, 1906 at the Parsee Bagan Square (Green Park) in Calcutta. It is a horizontal tricolor of dark blue, yellow and red. The upper blue stripe has 8 stars of different points. These represented the various state of bloom of lotus flower. The middle yellow stripe has “Vande Mataram” written in Devanagari script. The lower red strip has a sun and a star and a crescent on each end. Some sources give Sachindra Prasad Bose and Sukumar Mitra the credit for designCalled the 'Saptarishi Flag', this was hoisted in Stuttgart at the International Socialist Congress held on August 22, 1907
This flag was known as the Saptarishi flag and was hosted in Paris and later in Stuttgart by Madam Bhikaji Cama and her band of revolutionaries. This flag was very similar to first flag. The top strip had one lotus and seven stars depicting the Saptarishi . Madam Cama was the designer of this flag.
Wallpaper. is a band with a radical new pop-soul sound and sensibility that's the antipodean opposite of "wallpaper" music (in the classic Muzak sense). Wallpaper.'s major label debut on Epic Records is a uncompromising declaration of intent."Wallpaper. represents the eccentric everyman," says group frontman Ricky Reed, "a blue collar pop band for the other 99%, a twerking class hero who might ACTUALLY show up at your house party - THAT IS WALLPAPER.!"
Direct no-nonsense party music on the surface, Wallpaper., comprised of Arjun Singh and Tom Peyton on drums, Derek Taylor on percussion and Novena Carmel vocals, follows the trajectory of intoxication through the fuck-ups and the hangovers and the adventures and manages to even pinpoint the divine light that strikes for a split-second in the damnedest of places. In the heartbeat of the songs, Wallpaper.'s provocative party anthems open up to celebrate core human values, especially friendship, neccessary for emotional survival.
In "Good For It," the new Wallpaper. single, Ricky, with a mix of swagger and vulnerability, invokes the essential function of friendship operating the deepest levels in times of real trauma. "It's describing a real terrible situation that you're in, without any of the details. There hasn't been a song about just needing help in a long time," he says, harkening back to the Beatle's "Help" and REM's "Everybody Hurts."
Where the dynamic of "Drunken Hearts," is built around "a love song between two train-wrecks," "The Underdog" champions the long shot, the one you take because you don't take opportunity for granted. Ricky, whose "parents are not from money or involved in the entertainment industry," has been making music since he was 16 and strongly identifies with the underdog. It takes a strong work ethic to make it look as easy as Wallpaper. does. "I don't write a lot of songs," he confesses, "but I put a lot of work into all the songs I write. I'm not wasting anybody's time listening to my songs."
"Ricky Reed Is Real," Wallpaper.'s "thesis statement," contains a litany of attributes, concrete and abstract, re-enforcing the persona established on #STUPiDFACEDD, Wallpaper.'s 2011 breakout track (3.3 million YouTube views and counting). The track takes the artist's identity game to the next level, where "Ricky Reed" is a state-of-mind, an attitude, an idea fused directly with reality (a little like "Elvis," the concept). From "the song in your head" to "that hungover Sunday" right down to the "last dollar in the duct-taped wallet," Ricky Reed is in the details, just like God and the Devil. Born in Berkeley, California, Ricky became obsessed with music at a young age. His mother, a bookkeeper, exposed him to a variety of sounds from the smooth California pop of Steely Dan to the funky sounds of Motown and Sly & the Family Stone. Sly's daughter, Novena Carmel, is one of the vocalists in Wallpaper.
"I took on West Coast rap when that hit," Ricky remembers. "I was a young kid listening to Dre and Snoop." But what really flicked young Ricky's switch was post-Nirvana mainstream punk like Green Day, Rancid and Operation Ivy. "It came directly hand-fed through the radio. I was the right age and it hit me." From there, he got into (then) contemporary rock and British bands. "Digging deeper and deeper and then my mom put me onto early Yes. I got into prog rock, ELP, King Crimson, all that insane stuff. That led me to new music and the avant garde, Steve Reich, Boulez, classical music. I had a prog rock band. And then I decided I want to make some simple silly songs."
The result was Wallpaper.'s debut, 2009's T REX EP, a collection of two and 1/2 minute satiric pop songs. Influenced by Zapp & Roger and other 70s funk band, Ricky had incorporated Auto-Tune pitch correction into his recordings as a kind of satiric emotional distancing device. Wallpaper.'s debut album, Doodoo Face (also released in 2009), found Ricky reaching into deeper grooves for inspiration. "I started introducing R&B from my childhood into the songs so I could play at house parties and have fun."
By 2010, Ricky, unsure about the fate of Wallpaper., was honing his musical and songwriting skills doing commercial work. Looking back over the fledgling Wallpaper. catalog, he could feel a "real pop potential in these songs," but wasn't sure how to tap that. During the holidays, he found himself alone in a studio for a ten day stretch. "I had this weird epiphany," he recalls. "I should just do whatever I want." Giving himself permission to work in a new way opened up a "creative renaissance" that produced #STUPiDFACEDD, a pulse-of-the-culture track that nailed a contemporary ethos as accurately as the Beastie Boys had Fought For The Right To Party a quarter century earlier. The track, and its 21st century Satyricon video, proved pivotal in the Wallpaper. saga. Songwriter and record executive Evan Bogart signed Wallpaper. to Boardwalk Records and helped shepherd #STUPiDFACEDD to the good people at MTV's "Jersey Shore." MTV's next move was to collaborate with Wallpaper. on an animated video for BEST FUCKING SONG EVERR, a song celebrating friendship and loyalty in a storyline featuring the band members.
One evening in December 2011, Ricky Reed sat down at a grand piano in the auditorium of the Sony Building in Los Angeles and sang "#STUPiDFACEDD Reprise," a lounge jazz version of Wallpaper.'s signature song, for a small audience that included LA Reid and Tricky Stewart. The evening ended with Wallpaper. signing with Epic Records.
During the recording of the new Wallpaper. album, Ricky's been dividing his time between his beloved Bay Area and the City of Angels. In the middle of 2012, in the same Echo Park studio that birthed #STUPiDFACEDD, Ricky reached a new creative apotheosis. "Caffeinated and drinking by myself, there's a magic fuzzy place that I really like," he admits candidly proffering a glimpse into his creative process, "but I was going way too hard into it and feeling crazy and alone and in a room with no windows." From which sprang "Puke My Brains Out," a glorious confrontation with the absolute that's gnarly, profound and funny. "It was born out of frustration with where I was at. A new journey began and it ends up being the strongest material I've ever done. I holed up in the studio in October and rewrote almost the whole album from scratch."
Ricky and points proudly to one of Wallpaper.'s manifestos, "Puke My Brains Out," which is "not really a party jam or fully ironic. It's a general sense of feeling overwhelmed and needing to expel all the noise that's in your brain. It's about information overload really." A lyric video for the song, directed and animated in "90s early internet hell graphics by Ricky Reed," is currently racking up views on YouTube.Ricky's genius is the ability to compress all that information--verbal, rhythmic, melodic, technological, psychological, emotional, mental, physical, spiritual--into pop hooks that strike direct and true and stick to the brain.
For this latest batch of Wallpaper. material, Ricky Reed has "taken all that influence of punk and all that stuff I grew up listening to and all that attitude with the bass and understanding funk and pocket and weight and wrapping into one thing with hooks. If 'FUCKING BEST SONG EVERR' is your last reference point, you have no idea where I'm at right now." The new Wallpaper. album is the way to find out.
Air India is one of the most confounding airlines in the world today. Once India’s flag-bearer to the world; the aging carrier has slowly disintegrated into the mess currently grabbing headlines today. Such staple routes as Tokyo, Frankfurt, and London just aren’t making money for the carrier; a far cry from the days when they brought the Indian flag to every inhabited continent on the globe except South America. But in order to understand its current problems; it would be helpful to take a look back into the past.
Air India (and its former domestic partner Indian Airlines) has its roots in the vision of J.R.D Tata; India’s first true business scion. Tata was a director at Tata Sons Limited; one of Asia’s largest industrial companies. In July of 1932, he created an aviation department at the company; and began the first un-subsidized (ie: no mail contract from the British) domestic air service in India after receiving a license for through flights between Madras (Chennai) and Karachi via Bombay (Mumbai) on October 15th, 1932. The route, which also stopped in the commercial city of Ahmedabad gave South India an important link into the airline network in Bombay. The initial fleet consisted of 2 Puss Moths; a 2-3 seat propeller aircraft. Such was the success of the carrier that they added an additional Fox Moth; a larger cousin of the Puss Moth that could carry 3-4 passengers, within a year.
By 1935, a technical stop in Bellary had been replaced by a passenger stop in the more important Southern city of Hyderabad and overall frequency had doubled from once weekly to twice. New routes were also on the radar of the rapidly growing carrier; November of 1936 saw service being expanded from Bombay to Trivandrum via Goa using a 5 seat Miles Merlin, which Tata had used to replace the Puss Moths. By 1937 a route to Delhi (via Indore, Bhopal, and Gwalior) had been started and in 1938 the route to Madras was extended to Colombo, Sri Lanka. Tata Airlines’ business got a big boost during this period from a mail contract with the British Empire Air Mail Scheme, under which all First Class Letters between Karachi and Colombo (and all points served in between) were carried by Tata Airlines at ordinary postage rates (on a pound-mileage basis). By 1939; Tata Airlines was operating a fleet of 8 passenger D.H.89s and smaller types from the American manufacturer Waco; in that same year- the carrier bought two 12 seat D.H.86s from Mac.Robertson-Miller Airlines in Australia. But due to the outbreak of World War 2; J.R.D Tata was unable to take Tata Airlines to greater heights
During World War 2; the growth in new routes slowed for Tata Airlines. But because the War was relatively docile in India; demand on existing routes continued to grow. They upgraded their fleet constantly; eventually jumping up to a fleet of 3 Stinson Model As, as well as multiple 14 seat Douglas DC-2s. This new lift helped Tata spread its wings to Bangalore, Nagpur, Calcutta, and even Baghdad, Iraq by June of 1945 (nearing the end of the war).
Following the end of the war; Tata Airlines switched its emergency (ie: for war) route permits with actual route rights from the government. All routes were confirmed by June; and Tata was given access to war surpluses; resulting in a large fleet of at least 12 Douglas DC-3s; an aircraft which formed much of the fleet of Asian carriers in the 1950s. On July 29, 1946; Tata took his company public; and the carrier was re-named Air India Limited. In April of 1947; Air India received the first of 4 35-seat Vickers Vikings; for use on the larger routes in their network. As Air India continued to grow; it became a government owned corporation in March of 1948; later that month they received their first Lockheed Constellation; a large turboprop.
Running in parallel to the expansion of Tata Airlines were a few other Indian domestic carriers; such as Indian National Airways (INA) and Air Services of India (ASI); both of which had domestic networks rivaling that of Air India Ltd. Smaller private players abounded as well; Bharat Airways’ network extended all of the way to Bangkok, Hong Kong, and Singapore. As the government searched actively for ways to strengthen the Indian aviation industry; the nationalistic undercurrents in Indian politics called for a single national domestic airline. They got their wish on June 15th, 1953 when all Indian domestic carriers; as well as the domestic arm of Air India Ltd. were merged to form the Indian Airlines Corporation. The resulting carrier had a fleet of over 100 aircraft; ¾ of which were DC-3s, as well as a dozen each of the larger DC-4s and Vickers Vikings. Air India Ltd. was re-organized as Air India International (AII- later shortened to Air India), and given exclusive rights (amongst Indian carriers) to carry long-haul international traffic.From this point on; the stories of Air India and Indian Airlines will be told in parallel.
Before losing its domestic operations to Indian Airlines, Air India had also pursued its own international expansion. Soon after receiving the first Constellation, Air India introduced service to London; by way of Cairo and Geneva. Despite strong initial demand however, Tata was cautious, and he limited Air India’s initial international expansion to London and Nairobi (via Aden, Yemen) with its large ethnic population of Indian businessmen. But progress was not to be held back. The London services quickly jumped in frequency to 3 flights per week and new European points were added quickly to the London route; Rome, Paris, and Dusseldorf. Though Air India grappled with the time savings of the new Comets flown by BOAC (they even ordered a pair); they fought back with superb on-board service. Air India was especially beloved for the humorous little booklets it handed out to every passenger; with such useful information as how to (not) steal cutlery and a reminder not to stuff children in seat-back pockets.
Despite the lack of jet service to compete with BOAC; marginal improvements came with Lockheed’s L-1049 Super Constellations; which were placed on the London route in 1954. By 1960; the London route included Beirut, Zurich, and Frankfurt (which had replaced Dusseldorf. But in addition to an expansion of European service; Air India was turning its eyes eastward; to the Orient. Within a few years of full nationalization (1953 in parallel with Indian Airlines); Air India had opened routes to Singapore, Hong Kong, and Bangkok. The Singapore route was quickly extended to Australia (Sydney by way of Darwin); picking up traffic stops in Kuala Lampur and Jakarta along the way. Because of the violence in Egypt during the Suez crisis of 1956; Air India also developed an alternative route to Europe (Moscow by way of Tashkent); which could be extended to Western Europe if necessary. As the 50s drew to a close; Air India had grown from infancy into a full-fledged international carrier; with wide-ranging operations in Europe and Asia, as well as important toeholds in Africa and Australia. It was the latter that allowed Air India to take advantage of a lucrative business opportunity in the late 1950s; it leveraged its important position on the Kangaroo route to launch a revenue-sharing agreement with Qantas and BOAC (sort of a pre-precursor to today’s JVs) on service between Europe and Australia.
Meanwhile; Indian Airlines had been quietly dealing with problems of its own; mainly related to the fact that 8 airlines; with differing operations, had been squished into 1. Especially problematic was the redundancy in jobs; the airline had 2-3 times as many employees as necessary- resulting in a bureaucracy of staggering inefficiency. The attrition process would take many years and was never fully completed (see Air India’s current situation). Furthermore; the fleet of DC-3s was maintained haphazardly; with quality in certain shops shockingly bad (to put it mildly). This in and of itself was a more fundamental problem; as a carrier with a reputation for being unsafe could not be expected to gain flying passengers from the nation. When coupled with a bevy of unsafe airports (unpaved runways etc.), at least 17 resultant accidents involving DC-3s took place in the first 3 years of Indian Airlines. But while Indian Airlines grappled with these problems; they also moved to modernize the fleet. Five Vickers Viscount 768s were ordered for the main trunk lines and 8 de Havilland 114 Herons were introduced onto feeder routes.
During the 1950s; Indian Airlines set its network into a pattern that would be followed till the 1990s. The major trunk lines (especially those connecting “The Diamond”- India’s 4 largest cities; Bombay, Calcutta (Kolkata), Delhi, and Madras) were operated with the largest aircraft. Initially, they were served with Vickers Vikings; but trunk routes quickly shifted to pressurized Viscounts in 1957. Secondary routes were served initially with DC-3s; though even these routes could be differentiated into two tiers (Tier 1: mid-sized Indian cities with modern airport facilities, Tier 2: small Indian towns with rudimentary airstrips). As Indian Airlines shifted into the 1960; their main fleet problem became dealing with a replacement for the ageing DC-3s. The venerable Dakotas were the only airliner that could operate on rudimentary grass and gravel strips; so common in India’s economically backwards Northeast region. Replacement for Tier 1 cities was easy but the fate of Tier 2 stations remained to be seen. Two manufacturers had offerings in the 40-44 seat turboprop market; the Fokker F-27 Friendship and the Avro 748 (later Hawker-Siddely 748s). The HS-748, with its low wing design, was considered the better aircraft for operations into Tier 2 markets, so India negotiated a deal from which HS-748s would be built at Kanpur, India. However, given India’s notorious problems with business, Indian Airlines also decided that it couldn’t wait for the HS-748s for Tier 1 replacement and simultaneously order F-27 Friendships as well. These aircraft were delivered in 1961 (a full 6 years before the first HS-748), and began plying routes across India. But even after delivery of both types; neither was able to replace the DC-3s on the smallest dirt and gravel strips; meaning that the DC-3s stayed in the fleet until 1974.
While Indian Airlines was grappling with tough fleet choices; sister Air India entered the jet age. When the Boeing 707 entered service in 1958, they quickly revolutionized air travel with their (relatively) quiet and fast service. Air India was no different than most carriers, and placed their first Boeing 707 on the London route in April of 1960, and in May of the same year, hit a milestone with entry into service between London and New York; becoming the first Asian airline to serve NYC. Air India was considered one of the most luxurious airlines in the world; with its unique brand of Indian service creating popularity not only from New York to India; but even on the trans-Atlantic crossing. Much of Air India’s extraordinary service reputation during the 60s and 70s was the result of the work of Bobby Kooka, a marketing executive whose credits include the venerable Maharaja logo (the symbol of Air India).
By 1962, the 707 had replaced the Constellations (which were converted to cargo service) on the routes to Tokyo, Australia, Africa, and Europe; Air India was now an all-jet airline. Throughout the 1960s; Air India rationalized its network to fit the changing airline world. The advent of jet travel allowed more routes to be operated than ever before. This led Air India to de-couple much of its European network (though almost all flights ended in London), and add service to more points in the Gulf and beyond. By the second half of the decade; Air India had begun to shift its network to meet the needs of the changing overseas Indian population. Flights to Europe declined in importance, as the 707 allowed Air India to expand its network. The island destinations of Fiji and Mauritius, where Indians composed 50% or more of the populations, entered in 1964 and 1967 respectively. In 1968 they added Entebbe and Addis Ababa as African points; both containing sizeable Indian population. But these additions could not compare to the sudden boom in Indian population that was taking place just across the Arabian Sea. The Muslim countries of the Gulf were experiencing an oil boom, with their economies growing in the double digits each year. In order to service this growing wealth, these countries imported hundreds of thousands of laborers from South Asia to build up their infrastructure and serve as domestic servants. While these laborers were not supremely wealthy, they did constitute a source of new and growing demand. Recognizing the need for direct India-Gulf services; Air India began operating to many Gulf points as stand-alone destinations. Dubai, Abu Dhabi, and Dhahran soon showed up on the route map; and such was the demand for Air India’s services that they even chartered a Vickers VC-10 from BOAC to service Kuwait. Air India’s 11 Boeing 707s stayed in the fleet until the 1980s; operating on secondary routes and serving as a valuable tool in opening new services.
indian Airlines too was quick to enter the Jet Age. The Friendships had been successfully deployed on secondary routes, but it had quickly become apparent that the Viscounts were far too small for their main trunk routes. Two choices were possible; the British Trident and the French Caravelle. The Caravelle; with its bold rear-engines was the world’s first short-haul jet and it had served Air France with distinction. The Trident, on the other hand, was a paper airplane that carried only a few more passengers than the Caravelle with far more inefficiency. The Caravelles entered service on Indian Airlines’ trunk routes by 1964, equipped with 89 all-economy seats. In spite of the Caravelle’s extraordinary performance (Indian Airlines achieved annual utilization of almost 3,000 hours per aircraft- among the best in the world), problems with accidents persisted; and Air India lost 2 Caravelles in 1966. By 1968/69 Indian Airlines was in a severe capacity crunch (though the HS-748s helped some); further exacerbated by extraordinary demand on their trunk routes (which the Caravelles couldn’t fill). So in 1970, Indian Airlines won approval from the government to order a larger jet. The 125 seat Boeing 737-200 won the contract and 7 frames were ordered in 1970. However, this order was not without controversy; as the Douglas DC-9 and the BAC 1-11 were both in contention. The complicated and messy battle ended with the 737-200’s selection; and Indian Airlines received an aircraft that would remain the workhorse of its fleet into the 90s.Thus concludes part one of The Air India Story; which covered the dual story of Air India and Indian Airlines from ~1930 till 1970. Part 2 will cover the B-747 era, as well as Indian Airlines into the 2000s. Part 3 will cover the current situation at Air India and its possible solutions
It is surely a matter of academic discourses if we have to find out what does define basic tenets of nationalism. What is most striking, even if there has not been any uniform definition of same, there has been no dearth in nationalist feelings in countries. As per a school of thought, nationalism is nothing other than love of country and readiness or eagerness to sacrifice for it. While some other one consider, nationalism speaks of the doctrine that one’s national culture and interests are higher to any other. Whatever it is, all these indicate love and pride of an individual to his or her own country remains unblemished. However, this love is also not the result of any sudden development. It does result from pride of an individual in the history, culture and several other facets of his or her own nation.
I love my India immensely and there are enough reasons behind this. I do belong to a land that is regarded as one of the cradles of human race. It is the land that was instrumental in development of humanity and several other spheres of human civilization. These include culture, language, astronomy, mathematics and others (too numerous to be counted). How many people do know Sanskrit is regarded as one of the most scientific languages brought to the fore hitherto? This is also the land that gave birth to the notion of “0” or else there would hardly have been any further innovation in the realm of mathematics.
This is not all. India has been known for its universalism, liberalism or tolerance and conviction in the sacredness of human soul for centuries. And all these have influenced people a lot, even the alien aggressors. From Alexander to the British, all alien rulers have fallen in love with the mystic appeal and exquisiteness of India and have turned out to be its brilliant admirers.With the exception of exquisiteness and adherence to Religion, India also knows how to struggle and get its independence. The glorious Indian national independence struggle for almost two centuries proves the same in the most eloquent manner. In each and every respect, India wonders all and will continue to the do the same.You might call me a pessimist, but I am not running away from the ritual of bitter realism which we drink like bad faith every day.
You might pump yourself with film stars selling their miscellaneous products on television — ‘I love my India’ — and you might suddenly fly on the all that gas balloon of superpower, nuclear power India; but, honestly, you must be joking. Or you must be really sick, living in your clinical figment of shopping mall fantasies, in desperate need for an artificial adrenaline boost, looking for vanilla in a black hole of the unbearable lightness of being. The political and corporate elite of this compulsively poor and unhappy nation-state is on its thick-skinned brink, floating in a drugged state of déjà vu, brainwashed by the mediocrity of 24x7 television and Bollywood, and all that stands for the High Growth Rate, where jaundiced eyes and emaciated bodies stare at you from every damned corner of a failed nation. That it is all still holding together, despite the rut and the rot, is nothing but a filthy quagmire looking like still waters, stuck in the anti-clockwise vicious circle of being and nothingness. Jean Paul Sartre would call it a classic case of unfreedom celebrated as freedom. Erich Fromm would be more subtle about this ‘escape from freedom’ phenomena, whereby you actually run away when you see a moment of authentic meaning, so conditioned their minds have become with all the hypocrisies, thoughtlessness, untruth, insensitivity, organised corruption and lack of intellect and feeling which marks this pumped up, simulated consciousness of ‘I love my India’.
Which India, you might ask. What is your India. In which glorious geography and social history is this India situated. Inside a multiplex showing a garrulous, third rate, mindless Bombay movie, a shopping mall with scary escalators, in the wisdom of our antiseptic celebrities who are posited as role models. Or does it reside inside the manufactured domesticity in a gigantic multi-floor, multi-billion building of the richest man in India, the absurd architecture showing a dirty finger to the city of slums next to the sea.So, whose India is it, is it only for those, the obscenely rich, who control everything we see, eat, feel, pray, live, love: gas, petroleum, radio, cinema, TV channels, newspapers, multimedia, water, electricity, food, retail, vegetables, philanthropy, real estate, cosmetics, daily needs, soap, shampoo, cricket, you name it. Whose India is this, theirs or ours. Between the corporates, the political class and the bureaucracy, it’s a thick skin which marks this stink, and we all know how it stinks, because we don’t smell it anymore – like half of urban and rural India shitting in the open, or tens of thousands living next to filthy, dirty, shitty nullahs which were once pristine rivers, where half-naked children with bloated stomachs play games.
Are they children of ‘I love my India’, or should they all die slowly of epidemics and dirty waters of urbanity’s waste.theycold blooded brutality can we witness to become more thick-skinned, without ethics or hope. Like the Bob Dylan song, how many days does it take for the prime minister to realise, for instance, that scores have been butchered in Kokrajhar in Assam, and a few lakh are living an open-to-sky life, eating and shitting in under the big blue bedspread The darkest irony is that he has not even contested an election to become the PM; besides, he is a Rajya Sabha MP from Assam! What are his emotional linkages with this beautiful, unlucky state, one of the marginalised seven sisters of the Northeast Does he have strong emotions about anything – except on how to push in market fundamentalism down our throats to benefit the corporates at any cost They killed 17 tribals in cold blood in Chhattisgarh.
And we are all supposed to rejoice! As if nothing happened. Nothing happened?You kill your own people and you want us to sing, Satyamev Jayate Tens of thousands have committed suicide in Vidharbha, and the Union agriculture minister is still positioning for more power, despite the cash-rich BCCI in his lap. Pray, what will he do with more wealth and more power when he has all but dumped his own people in the state trapped in a severe, protracted drought Truly, I love my India. Hum mein hain Hero… Hero go, India go! -